Everyone who is “ripe” to make one of the important steps in his life – to buy a car, there are many problems that must be solved before the purchase. And the most important of them is to get an answer to the question – which brand is better to buy, based on whether it is new or in the secondary market, for recreation, work, or maintaining an image. Naturally, this choice is also influenced by the size of the allocated budget. But to make this choice correctly and profitably, detailed and accurate information about the brand, its history, and the features of its products will always help.
What car brands start with D?
Oddly enough, there are letters for which very few company names are represented in the history of auto production. Some are the most “favorite” of those who found a car company. The letter “D” is in the middle position. And in this group, there are quite a lot of brands, among which there are masters – Daewoo, Daihatsu, Daimler, Dodge, and not very well-known companies – Darl Mat, Darracqs, Donnet-Zedel, and others.
In addition, the formation of such information is one of the ways to preserve important milestones in the history of the development of the global automotive industry and all humanity. Being in a direct relationship – a person and the technology created by him have an important influence on each other. Having the opportunity to trace this connection in detail to determine the speed and degree of development of one of the parties, one can predict what awaits each party in the future. Such information is very useful for professionals and car enthusiasts, scientists and marketers, collectors, and those who are preparing to become a driver. But not only this determines the importance of systematization of information on the car’s history. It would seem that barely a century and a half has passed since the appearance of the first car, and how much has already been lost in such a short time against the background of the entire period of human existence, and almost irrevocably. How many brilliant ideas and innovators of that time “got lost” in the maze of history, how many promising technological and original design solutions remained unrecognized and unrealized, remaining undeservedly forgotten or lost in time, as there is no evidence of them, except unverified rumors or vague references.
What expensive cars start with the letter D?
The most expensive brand for its time was Duesenberg, whose cars produced before World War II was more prestigious than Rolls-Royce models. Even today, the remaining running copies are valued in millions of dollars, exceeding the cost of many newer models from the super-expensive category. For example, a Duesenberg SSJ speedster sold for a record $22 million in 2018.
What is a D-type vehicle?
According to the European classification, type D refers to passenger cars, the third in the size category. Popularly, they are called “big cars.” They are defined by Euro NCAP as a large family car and, in the North American class – as a mid-size car. The compact executive cars also belong to this type.
In 1966, the Dacia automobile brand appeared in Romania, which will become the face of the automobile industry in this country for many years. For its creation, technical assistance was provided by Renault. She was licensed for the Renault R12, which was slated to launch in 1969 in France. In 1968, the first Renault R8 was assembled, called the Dacia 1100. In 1999, Renault became the full owner of the brand, making it a subsidiary. Today, the brand is headquartered in Mioveni, the country’s largest exporter. Since 2021, it has been part of the Renault Dacia-Lada enterprise.
The largest South Korean automaker is Daewoo, founded by Kim Ujun in 1967 as Daewoo Industrial in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Her activities covered various areas – electronics, household appliances, weapons, and cars. The brand was the second after Hyundai in terms of the number of its divisions, of which there were more than 20. Among the brand’s popular cars – Daewoo Nexia. In 1998, the Asian crisis also affected the company, disbanding in 1999. But some of its subdivisions are still functioning today.
The Japanese company Daihatsu, which dates back to 1907, is known for its powerful gas engines. This year, it was founded by Osaka University professors Yoshinki and Turumi as Hatsudoki Seizo Co., Ltd and is based in Osaka. In 1951, the brand was renamed Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd. In 1967 he agreed with Toyota Motor Corporation, and in 1968 he sold a controlling stake in it. Toyota has owned him since 2016. Popular models are Daihatsu YRV and Sirion (2005).
In 1885, Gottlieb Daimler laid the foundation for creating the German automotive concern Daimler AG in the 20th century, headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany. 1926 saw the first merger of the brand at Daimler-Benz AG, with the automobile manufacturer Benz & Cie. The brand’s cars were very popular with the monarchical families of the world until 1950. In 1998 Chrysler acquired the company and formed the DaimlerChrysler AG concern. In May 2007, the concern sold most of its shares to Cerberus Capital Management, which renames the company Daimler AG.
The German car brand Dauer Sportwagen GmbH, was founded by race car driver Jochen Dauer in Nuremberg in 1987 as Jochen Dauer Racing. After completing the sports prototype races, Dauer Racing GmbH begins assembling the road-going Dauer 962 Le Man models. But even here, difficulties arise, which led to the creation of the Dauer Sportwagen GmbH on the remains of Dauer Racing. Acquiring part of Bugatti Automobili SpA in 1995, the company completed the redesign of the EB110, creating the SS EB110. Today the brand is engaged in alterations of the Porsche 962, but it is not active.
6 David Brown Automotive
British car manufacturing company – David Brown Automotive was founded in 2013 in Coventry, having moved to Silverstone, England in 2017. The brand is owned by David Brown, an entrepreneur who owned Aston Martin Lagonda Ltd, and Vosper Thornycroft, a shipbuilding company. The first model appeared in 2014. She was exhibited at Top Marques in Monaco. The second model, Mini Remastered, was released in 2017. The Speedback GT was on display at this year’s Geneva International Motor Show. The Speedback Silverstone Edition was released in 2018.
7 De Dion-Bouton
De Dion-Bouton is a famous car brand from Paris, France. Founded in 1883 by Jules-Albert de Dion, Georges Bouton, and Charlemagne-Arman Trepard to assemble steam cars, it produced the first La Marquise. In 1890, the company’s design bureau patented a gasoline engine, and in 1893 – a new design for an automobile axle. Having released 400 cars by 1900, the brand acquires the status of the largest automaker in the world. The first car with a single-cylinder engine came out in 1913. During the First World War, autocannons were produced. The last passenger car model came out in 1932. Freight vehicles were produced until 1952.
8 De Tomaso
Italian car manufacturer De Tomaso Automobili SpA, founded by Alejandro de Tomaso in 1959 in Modena, Italy, specialized in sports cars. The first were prototypes and racing models, including variants for Formula One, ordered by Frank Williams. Mass production of their own sports cars began in 1963. The founder took over the Maserati brand in 1976. The most famous models are De Tomaso Vallelunga, De Tomaso Pantera, De Tomaso Guara and De Tomaso Deauville Concept (2011). In 2012, the brand was discontinued.
9 Devel Motors
A car brand from Dubai, UAE – Devel Motors (Defining Extreme Vehicles Car Industry LLC) has become famous as a “one car” company. Founded by the Al-Attar brothers in 2013, it created the Devel Sixteen hypercar with an engine of 5,007 hp. and 4771 Nm of torque; the maximum speed is 515 km/h and reaches 100 km/h in 1.8 s. The company continues developing and modifying other models, offering options for conventional roads. Has significant prospects for further development, becoming the pioneer of a new era of automobiles.
10 Devin Enterprises
Founded by Bill Devin in 1955, the American company Devin Enterprises has become world-famous for developing bodies from an innovative polymer-based on fiberglass. At the same time, the company manufactured and sold complete vehicles. The famous model of the brand was the Devin Panhard, based on the Panhard chassis, on which the body, created by Devin, was “dressed.” 1957 Devin MG with a Chevrolet V8 engine. Especially popular were Alfas, MG, Triumphs, and Healys, with a rework from the brand. Models produced before 1964 included the Devin SS, Devin D, and Devin C. In 2011, the brand was acquired by Devin Sports Cars LLC of Glendale, California, USA.
11 Devon Motorworks
In 2008, in Los Angeles, CA, United States, Scott Devon founded Devon Motorworks to design and manufacture premium vehicles. The brand’s mission was to create recognizable beauty for technology. The Devon GTX supercar’s first car went into production in 2010. But the crisis stopped production. The brand became the only participant in the Chrysler Dodge Viper platform tender. But the deal did not materialize. In 2013, it was closed, having managed to build only two cars.
An Italian company from Turin, Italy, founded back in 1835 by Guglielmo Diatto under the name Diatto, was created to manufacture carriages for wealthy customers. Only grandchildren, Vittorio and Pietro Guglielmo, changed direction in 1905 to an automobile, naming the joint venture Diatto-Clément under license from Clément-Bayard. In 1909, the company already produced its cars and racing cars, selling them worldwide. Diatto cars were innovative – with 4-wheel brakes and a 4-speed gearbox. The brand closed in 1929.
13 Dinan Cars
Dinan Cars is a Steven Dinan manufacturing company founded in 1979 to design and manufacture BMW parts in Alabama, US. In 1982, the company was registered as Bavarian Performance, Inc. in Morgan Hill, California. After six years, the company was renamed Dinan Engineering, Inc. In 1991, 50 copies of Dinan 8 were built. Until 2006, the brand created parts for the Mini Cooper, and until 2013 – BMW racing engines. This year, the company was acquired by Driven Performance Brands, and in 2015, the founder left the company.
14 Dino Ferrari
The Dino brand was founded by the Italian company Dino in the early 60s of the last century to create several series of racing and sports cars. The central location of the engine distinguished them. The brand was named in memory of the founder’s son. Seven main models were created: Dino 156 F2, Dino 166 F2/246 Tasmania, and Dino 308/208 GT4. The last model was produced until 1980. It was released 840 copies. In 2015, the preparation of a new model was announced. It was an effort to create affordable sports cars.
Dampf Kraft Wagen or DKW is a German motorcycle and automobile brand founded in 1916 in Chemnitz. It is a subsidiary of Auto Union. At the origin was Jørgen Skafte Rasmussen, the owner of Ernst and Rasmussen, which was engaged in creating and selling various types of machinery and equipment, including steam engines. In 1913 the company was split up. In 1916, Rasmussen developed the creation of steam cars. Since 1922, there has been a successful sale of motorcycles, including the DKW RT 125, used by the Wehrmacht. The first DKW F1 Rennwagen appears in 1928. The production closed in 1966.
The American car brand Dodge today belongs to the Chrysler brand car line. Under her, the brand produced several cars, pickups, SUVs, and commercial vehicles. It was founded in 1900 by the Dodge brothers to produce components for transport. In 1914, the brothers tried to produce cars – Dodge Brothers. During the year, 249 cars were created. After the brothers died, the brand was sold to Chrysler in 1928. Until 2009, Chrysler supported the development and production of cars under the TM Dodge, but after the acquisition of the brand by the Italian FIAT, the brand was closed in 2010.
Delage is a French car manufacturing company founded in 1905 in Levallois-Perret, France, by the French businessman Louis Delage. The company focused on the production of racing cars and executive vehicles. In 1918, the company released the Delage CO model, followed by Delage DI, Delage CO2, Delage 2 LCV with 1-2 years gap. The model Delage D8-120 Aerosport Coupe, 1925, which joined the ranks of famous European classic cars, becomes especially famous. In 1935, the company was forcibly acquired by the Delahaye brand.
Delahaye is a French brand that bought out Delage and was formed in 1894 by Emilem Delaye in Tour, France. The company produced its first belt-driven machines. The founder-owned the company until 1901, when he sold his stake for health reasons. The brand lasted until 1954, saturating the market with its models – from Delahaye 134, 1933 to Delahaye 235, released in 1951 and produced until the merger with Hotchkiss et Cie in 1954. At this time, a new brand was created – Hotchkiss-Delahaye.
Since 1903, a company named Delaunay-Belleville, headquartered in Louis Delaunay, France, has emerged among French automakers. It was formed from the 1850 boiler plant created by Delaunay by Julien Belleville. The first luxury car appeared at the 1904 Paris Motor Show. In 1905, there was a delivery of 2 machines for Nicholas II. These machines were owned by the kings of Greece, George I, and Spain Alfonso XIII. In the First World War, the Renault FT-17 tank was produced. Since 1946, the mini-car Rovin has been produced; the production was financed by Raoul Pegulu, Marquis de Roven, whose death in 1950 the company was closed.
20 DeLorean Motor Company
John Delorean, an engineer by training, founded his own auto company in 1975 in Detroit, Michigan. A plant was built in Denmark, Northern Ireland. The release of the only model, the DeLorean DMC-12, was carried out, since then, in 1982, a trial followed in a trumped-up case of drug trafficking by the founder, which led to a complete outflow of funds from all investors. The enterprise was closed at the end of this year. In 1995, former mechanic Stephen Vine founded his DeLorean Motor Company, acquiring the assets and rights to the DMC logo in Houston, Texas.
The Austrian car brand Denzel, the brainchild of Wolfgang Denzel, was founded in 1948. It was the first competitor for Porsche in Vienna, Austria. The company developed the Denzel 1300S model, which was produced in a circulation of 300 pieces. Its production was carried out until 1959. The model became widely known for its rapid victory in the 1954 Alpine Rally. Only open roadsters came out of the stocks of the brand’s plant. They were distinguished by their unique transmission design. Today it is the company – Wolfgang Denzel AG, which sells cars.
22 Derby or Vernon-Derby
The name Derby was given in 1921 to a division of the company Établissements Bertrand Montet of Courbevoie, which was founded in 1912. Since 1927, in England, the brand’s cars have been sold under the Vernon-Derby TM. In 1921, the production of cars began – the first D 2 car and the light passenger car – Voiturettes, presented in front-wheel-drive variants, the production of which was carried out until 1933. In 130, the famous racer Douglas Hawkes became the company’s head. The brand ceased to exist in 1936.
Under the DeSoto brand, the American brand Chrysler Corporation produced mid-range cars. It was founded in 1928 to compete at this price point with General Motors, Studebaker, and Willys-Knight. The main visual distinction of the brand was the stylized image of the conquistador Hernando de Soto chosen as the emblem. The first model came out in 1929. In 1934, the Airstream from the Airflow series appeared with an original streamlined body shape. In 1942, the most popular model with retractable headlights appeared. In 1960, the brand was closed.
24 Detroit Electric
The American electric vehicle manufacturer Detroit Electric was founded in 1907 in Detroit, Michigan, as an offshoot of the Anderson Electric Car Company, which has been called the Anderson Carriage Company since 1884. The Anderson Electric Car Company had Henry Ford and Thomas Edison among its influencers. The first cars were equipped with lead-acid batteries with the possibility of replacing them with iron-nickel ones. In 1920, the brand name changed to The Detroit Electric Car Company. The brand was closed in 1939. Zap (USA) and Youngman (China) have revived the brand with the first ZAP Xebra.
Representative of the Japanese sports car industry – Dome Co. Ltd was founded in 1975 by Minor Hayashi, who created his first Karasu car this year based on the Honda S600 coupe. The facility was located in Maybara, Japan. The product portfolio of the brand includes single-seat racing cars and sports prototypes. In 1975, Takaragayke Hayashi created the Dome brand based on his father’s production. The first Dome Zero road concept car will see the light of day in 1978. A racing prototype for Formula 1, the Dome F105, is being built. The brand was closed in 1986. In 1988, an attempt was made to revive.
26 Donkervoort Automobielen BV
Dutch sports car manufacturer Donkervoort Automobielen BV is based in Lelistad, Netherlands. It was founded by Joop Donkervoort in 1978 in Tienhoven. The production is based on creating cars with a design in the style of Lotus Seven. In 1996, the brand signed a talk with Audi to supply power plants. The production was focused on creating open models that did not have electronic aids, in line with the company’s motto – No compromise. In 2007, the first production model, Donkervoort D8 GT, was released in a closed version.
27 Doran Enterprises
The American brand Doran Enterprises is a group of companies spanning various manufacturing and sports areas, founded in 1993. This is a racing sports team – Doran Racing, and an enterprise for producing components and racing cars, restoration of antique cars – Doran Designs. The brand is headquartered in Lebanon, Ohio. The production has produced a large number of racing car series. Among the brand’s successful models is the DORAN JE4 Daytona prototype.
28 DP Motorsport
Among the tuning and design companies, the German design house DP Motorsport is world-renowned for its specialization in unique Porsche designs. Created by Ekkehard Zimmermann back in 1973, the brand managed to stand out by creating unique shapes and designs for such Porsche models as P 962, 935 DP II and III, Speedy Irishman, 911 Sleeper 3.2. The highlight was the dp44 Cargo. All of the brand’s work, including the chassis of 30 Formula-V and Super-V racing cars, designed by Zimmermann personally, is distinguished by a particular elegance and unrivaled appeal.
29 Drekar ASV
American auto-tuning is represented by a wide range of brands, among which Drekar ASV (American Specialty Vehicles) is especially famous. The company was founded by brothers Jan and Kurt Osteen over 85 years ago. The company became famous for its prototypes and unique special-purpose vehicles, including the Drekar Firebird Trans Am Z15 and ambulances. Today, the brand is a leader in this area throughout the Southwest United States. The brand is headquartered in Arkansas, USA.
Auto brand Dual-Ghia is an American TM of a car that is quite rare since the brand existed for only two years. Founded in 1956 in Detroit, Michigan, Dual-Motors Corporation and Carrozzeria Ghia the company has focused on the one-off production of premium sports cars. Brand models – Firearrow I, II, III, IV were built based on Dodge. The Firebomb was also developed and prepared for production. In 1958, production under this brand was completed.
In 1913, an automobile company named Auburn, Indiana, was formed in Auburn, Indiana. Founded by brothers Frederick and August Düssenberg, the company was supposed to help realize the idea of offering expensive luxury cars to the automotive market, whose task was to maintain the owner’s image. It succeeded, and the brand went down in automotive history as a manufacturer of expensive, high-quality general-purpose vehicles and successful racing models. The brand was discontinued in 1937.
32 Du Pont Motors
Du Pont Motors is an American manufacturing company founded by E. Paul du Pont to manufacture engines for ships. After the end of the First World War in 1919, it was reoriented to the automotive industry in Wilmington, Delaware. The first car, the Model A, was seen at the International Salon at the Commodore Hotel in New York City in 1919. In 1928, the Model G saw the light. Until 1931, the brand assembled and sold 625 cars. The luxury of finishes and the comfort of control of the models, their high quality and stylishness put Du Pont cars on a par with the elite products of that time from Packard, Cadillac, Stutz, and Duesenberg. In 1932 the brand was merged with the Indian Motorcycle Company under the joint ownership of E. Paul du Pont.
Japanese car brand Datsun was founded in 1911, changing its original name in 1934 to Nissan, located in Yokohama, Japan. After the renaming, the brand retained the parent trademark while maintaining the production of Datsun-branded models. In 1914, the first DAT-Car was released. The title monogram was composed of the names of the investors. In 1918, the company was renamed Kwaishinsha Motor Car Co., Ltd. In 1925, DAT Jidosha & Co., Ltd. Having become a subsidiary of Tobata Casting Co., Ltd in 1931, the brand received a different name – DAT Jidosha Seizo Co., Ltd, which gave rise to the name of the machines Datson, and then – Datsun. To strengthen the main Nissan name, the brand was abandoned. But in 2012, the brand was revived, closing it again in 2020.
The DS car manufacturer, founded by the PSA Peugeot Citroën group of companies, was first announced in 2009 as a premium sub-brand. The headquarters of the company is located in Paris, France. The name given to the brand is an abbreviation of Different Spirit or Distinctive Series, at the same time a reference to the historical model Citroën DS and a play on words – a variant of the French déesse (goddess). In 2010, the first car was released – the DS3 hatchback. It is a combined variant of the two Citroën C3 Pluriel and Citroën DS Inside models. Since 2012 in China and 2014 everywhere, Citroën has dropped the DS from its lineup, making DS Automobiles independent.
35 DAF Trucks
DAF Trucks from the Netherlands, headquartered in Eindhoven, began its history in 1928. Hubert Van Dorn founded Commanditaire Vennootschap Hub van Doorne’s Machinefabriek. Expanding production in 1932, he changed the brand name to Van Doorne’s Aanhangwagen Fabriek, DAF. Since 1949, the company has been manufacturing trucks, trailers, buses, changing its name to Van Doorne’s Automobiel Fabriek. The first product was the DAF A30. The brand has been making its engines since 1956. Today the brand has thousands of dealerships around the world.
36 DINA S.A.
DINA is a truck and bus manufacturing facility in Ciudad Sahagún, Hidalgo, Mexico. Founded in 1951, it is a member of the Grupo Empresarial G group, joining in 1989. The company is known for many agreements with various global brands – Fiat, Renault, Flxible, Cummins, Perkins, Chrysler, Caterpillar, Scania, MCI, Škoda, Spicer, Eaton, and Dana, which ensured its technological advantages and commercial success. Today, the brand’s products are buses widely used in Latin America for various purposes.
One of the largest Chinese corporations is the Dongfeng Motor Corporation or DFM from Wuhan, China. It was founded in 1969 by the personal order of Mao Zedong. Production includes – light vehicles, all types of commercial vehicles, especially buses, components, and equipment. Today, the brand, along with Chang’an Motors, FAW Group, and SAIC Motor, tops the country’s best automakers list. Has several joint ventures with leading foreign brands – Volvo, Renault.
38 Drako Motors
American company Drako Motors, Inc was founded in 2013 by Dean Drako and Shiv Sikand in San Jose, California, United States. Her track record includes DriveOS and the Drako GTE luxury sports sedan unveiled at The Quail Motorsport in 2019. In 2921, the brand announced the Drako Dragon, which features higher torque inverters with upgrades and new battery technology. The suspension and cooling system have been redesigned.
The Dayun Group car brand from Yuncheng, Shanxi, China, was founded in 1987. As one of the largest Chinese conglomerates, the brand includes several subsidiaries – Dayun Light Truck, Dayun Motor, Dayun Motorcycle, Dayang Motorcycle, Weichai Engine, Dayun Real Estate Development, Luoyang Dayun. Each of them carries out the production of a certain type of transport and equipment, supplying them to the domestic and foreign markets under a single Dayun brand. So Dayun Light Truck, founded in 2009 in Chengdu, Sichuan, China, produces light trucks. Dayun Motor – manufactures heavy trucks.
Dartz Motorz – a Latvian armored vehicle production subsidiary of Dartz Grupa OÜ from Estonia, is a follower of the Russo-Balt factory in Riga, Latvia. Its owner, Leonard F. Yankelovich, wanted to return the historical name, but the name had already been purchased earlier. For the first time, they started talking about the company in 2009 after it presented its model Prombron. It was created in 9 variants – Iron Diamond, Iron Xtal, Monaco Red Diamond Edition, Black Dragon, Black Russian, Gold Russian, Aladeen, White Horse, and Monako. The T-98 Kombat was released in 2010. In 2014 – Black Shark and Black Snake. Options are sedan or wagon standard or short/long wheelbase.
The car brand DAB or Danish Automobile Building, was founded in 1912 in Silkeborg, Danish by the German J.W.Darr. Trucks were the first products. In the future, the company installed bus bodies on truck chassis. During the two world wars, the brand switched entirely to buses, becoming the largest manufacturer in the world. Collaboration with British Leyland Motors in 1953 allowed the use of brand components. Leyland became a majority shareholder in the 1970s, renaming the company Leyland-DAB. In 1990, United Bus acquired the brand’s shares. In 1997 the brand was renamed Scania A / B, Silkeborg. In 2002, the DAB name ceased to exist.
42 Dadi Auto
Dadi Automobile Group Co., Ltd was a Chinese manufacturing company founded in 1988 by Baoding Dadi Auto Group in Baoding, China. The primary company produced defense vehicles. In 1988, after being renamed Dadi Auto, the brand built its civilian pickup. The first line was Great Wall Motor and Zhongxing. In the 2000s, the brand shifted its focus to commercial vehicle production. In 2011, the company was bought by CHTC, and in 2012 it was merged into Hengtian (CHTC) Dadi Automobile Co., Ltd.
One of the racing chassis and Formula 3 cars manufacturers is the Dallara Automobili da Competizione brand, founded by Gian Paolo Dallara in 1972 near Parma, Italy. Cars from Dallara made their debut at the Italian Formula 3 race in 1978. In 1988, the company introduced Formula 1 cars, which were used by the Scuderia Italia team. In 2009, the brand began developing a car for the Campos Meta to compete in the 2010 championships. But production was suspended due to a reorganization of the team, and the subsequent Hispania F110 fell short of expectations.
44 Daniels Motor Company
The pioneer American automobile brand Daniels Motor Company was founded in 1915 in Reading, Pennsylvania, US. It was organized by George E. Daniels and Neff E. Parish. The enterprise was created for the manufacture of cars only for individual orders. Each car was a work of art. In 1916, 142 Daniels A cars were manufactured. In 1917, a three-seater Daniels B coupe was developed. In the 1920s, a new plant was opened. The ensuing financial crisis in 1923 led to the decline and closure of the brand in 1924.
45 Dare (UK) Limited
British automaker – Dare (UK) Limited, founded by brothers Ivor and Trevor Vallett and the son of the latter Mark in November 1990 in Colchester, UK. The founders own the rights to manufacture Ginetta, two models – Ginetta G 4 and G 12. The brand itself was created to manufacture sports cars by order from the Japanese Ginetta Cars, which ceased to exist in 1992. The Ginetta G 4 and G 12 models are still in production and are on sale. The D3 and TG Sport models became independent brand products.